Ada ide untuk membuat sistem operasi sendiri tapi bingung mau mulai dari mana. Langsung googling dan ketemu disini. Di Indonesia bahasan ini masih jarang kayanya. Baru nemu yang bule punya (ckckck). Check this out now. Original resource from here
An Operating System tells the computer what to do. Whether the ones you have found don’t measure up, or if you are a hobbyist wanting to have a creation to call your own, it can be a daunting to do this task and it may take years to get your own operating system to be of any use. Remastering an existing Linux distro can also be straight forward and easy. An operating system is a piece of software to manage and interact with the hardware effectively and provides a shell for other programs to run on.
Decide what medium you want to load your OS on. It can be a CD, DVD, Thumb drive or a hard disk
Decide what you want your OS to do. Whether it is a fully capable OS with a GUI or something a bit more minimalistic, you’ll need to know what direction you are taking it before beginning.
Target what processor platform your operating system will support. If you are not sure, your best bet is to target the X86 (32 bit) processor platform as most computers use X86 platform processors.
Decide if you would rather do it all yourself from the ground up, or if there is an existing kernel you would like to build on top of. Linux from Scratch is a project for those that would like to build their own Linux distro.
Decide if you’re going to create your own bootloader or a pre-created one such as GRUB. While coding your own bootloader will give a lot of knowledge of the hardware and the BIOS, it may set you back on the programming of the actual kernel.
While it is possible to create an operating system in a language such as Pascal or BASIC you will be better off using C or Assembly. Assembly is absolutely necessary as some vital parts of an operating system require it. C++ contains keywords that needs another fully built OS to run. Don’t use it.
Start small. Begin with small things such as displaying text and interrupts before moving on to things such as memory management and multitasking.
Decide on your API. While this is a long way off it is a good idea to plan ahead. A good API to choose is POSIX, which is well documented. All Unixes have at least partial support for POSIX, so it would be trivial to port Unix programs to your OS.
Decide on your design. There are monolithic kernels and microkernels. Monolithic kernels implement all the services in the kernel, while microkernels have a small kernel combined with user daemons implementing services. In general, monolithic kernels are faster, but micro kernels have better fault isolation and reliability.
After all development is done, decide if you want to release the code as Open source, or proprietary
If you want an easy way. Consider Ubuntu remastersys, Fedora Revisor, Custom Nimble X, Puppy Remaster, PCLinuxOS mklivecd, SuSE Studio and SuSE KIWI. However, the operating system you create belongs to the company who started the service first. Although you have rights to distribute it freely, change it and run it however you like (under the GPL).
- Do not wipe your hard drive completely. Remember, wiping your drive will clear out ALL your data and its irreversible! Use GRUB or another boot manager to dual boot your system with another OS until yours is fully functional.
- An alternative method of testing your new operating system is to use a virtual machine. Rather than rebooting your computer each time you make changes, or having to transfer the files from your development computer to your test machine, you use a virtual machine application to run your OS while your current OS is still running. Three such VM applications are VMWare (http://www.vmware.com), the open source alternative bochs (http://bochs.sourceforge.net), and Microsoft Virtual PC (www.microsoft.com ; Microsoft Virtual PC is not compatible with Linux). VMware also has a freely available server product which should suit nicely.(http://www.vmware.com/products/server/) An easy one is sun’s xVM VirtualBox. (http://www.virtualbox.org)
- Getting a copy of the Intel developer manuals from http://developer.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/index.htm is vital
- Use websites such as http://osdev.org and http://osdever.net to help you develop your own operating system. Please note well that for most purposes, the OSDev.org community would prefer that you stick to using their wiki, and do not join the forum. If you do decide to join the forum, there are prerequisites: You are required to thoroughly know C or C++, and x86 Assembly language. You must also understand general, and complex programming concepts such as Linked Lists, Queues, etc.
- In order to compile an operating system from C or C++ code, you will of course be using one compiler or another. The OSDev community, in its rules, explicitly states that the community is not around to babysit new programmers. If you are trying to develop an operating system, it goes without saying that you are expected to be a programming “God.”
- You should therefore read the user guide/manuals/documentation for your chosen C/C++ compiler, whether it comes packaged with the software or is available on the distributor’s website. You will need to know many intricate things about your compiler and, for C++ development, you should know about the compiler’s mangling scheme and its ABI. You are expected to understand the various executable formats (ELF, PE, COFF, plain binary, etc.), and understand that the Windows proprietary format, PE (.exe) has been copyrighted and that, if you choose to use it, you are wasting your time and if you ask questions on the forum about the use of PE in a kernel you are also wasting everyone else’s time.
- You are also required to have read the processor manuals for the processor architecture you have chosen; whether x86 (Intel), ARM, MIPS, PPC, etc. The manuals for a processor architecture may be easily found using a Google search (“Intel Manuals”, “ARM manuals” etc).
- Do not start an operating system project in order to begin learning programming. No. Uh-uh. Do not. If you don’t already know C, C++, Pascal, or some other suitable language inside out, including pointer manipulation, low-level bit manipulation, bit shifting, inline assembly language, etc, you are not fit for operating system development. Please, if such is the case, do not join the OSDev.org forums and start asking obvious questions. It will simply result in “Read the f***ing Manual” answers. You should try reading Wikipedia, and the manuals for the various tools you wish to use.
- Do not expect that a proper operating system will be easy to build. There are, lots of times, intricate interdependencies. For example, in order to make an operating system able to handle multiple processors, your Memory Manager must have “locking” mechanisms in place to prevent multiple processors from accessing the same resource at the same time. The “locks” used for this will require the presence of a scheduler to make sure that only one processor accesses a critical resource at any given time and all the others are made to wait. Yet the scheduler depends on the presence of a Memory Manager. This is a case of a deadlocked dependency. There is no standard way to solve problems like this; each operating system programmer is expected to be skilled enough to figure out his own way of dealing with it. Do not ask stupid questions about implementation details.
- Last but not least it must be emphasized that if while reading this part of the article you find that you’re shrinking away, then you should either: (1) Man up and go do the right thing, which is to read fully, and not skim, the manuals for your processor architecture and (2) read the manuals for your development toolchain (compiler, linker, bootloader, etc).
- Your second option is to quit, since it means that you are not a super-1337 programmer and are going to be wasting both your, and everyone else’s, time asking stupid questions and getting the same answer: Read the f***ing Manual. You are expected to be up to par as a seasoned sage of a programmer.
- It is an excellent idea to keep a backup of the last working source, in case something goes terribly wrong with the current version or your development PC crashes and is unable to boot.
- Consider developing it in a team; that way, less time is required and more problems can be solved and generally the OS may be better.
- It may be a good choice to make a completely new partition for developing the OS.
- You will not have a full system in two weeks. Start with an OS that boots, then move on to the cool stuff.
- Check for potential deadlocks and other bugs. Bugs, deadlocks and other problems will affect your Operating System project.
- Release a “release candidate” so that users are able to tell you potential problems with your operating system
- Having your operating system carelessly written to the hard drive can corrupt it completely. Be careful.
- Be sure to implement security features as your top priority if you ever want to use it for anything.
- If you do something really stupid, like write random bytes to random I/O ports, you *will* crash your OS, and (in theory) can fry your hardware. For a demonstration, execute ‘cat /dev/port’ on Linux as root. Your computer “will” crash.
- Using your computer’s physical drive is a BAD idea especially if you got 1 hard disk! You may damage your hard disk or destroy data that may be valuable to you.
- Remember, to make an OS, you must not use any standard header and/or library. You need to make your own headers.
- IF you use COSMOS, keep in mind that its just “Lego blocks” for building your OS. Its NOT intended to be an full-fledged OS.
- If you use GRUB, your OS must boot into protected mode. it won’t work on real mode.
edit Things You’ll Need
- A good computer
- A CPU for the Architecture you will be developing
- Enough memory (RAM) for a Virtual Machine
- A ‘Host’ OS, used to develop the Assembler (and others) source code, also to build and package it, while it is in its early stages, eventually your own OS can be its host.
- Syntax coloring code editor (use if you got no IDE)
- Most importantly, you need a compiler.
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March 5, 2011 by Garshepp