Cara belajar bahasa pemrograman

Programming is a very complex skill that takes many years to master. This article will start you on your path towards mastery by explaining the choices you must make as a beginning programmer and guiding you to helpful tools and resources.

Steps

  1. Decide what you want to do. Some programming applications with strong Web presence and good materials for beginners are game programming, Web site creation, automation of common tasks (“scripting”), text processing, and scientific problem solving. If you just think programming would be cool to learn and don’t have any specific applications in mind, that’s okay, but thinking about what you want to program in advance will help you make informed decisions during your learning experience.
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  2. Choose a programming language. Start with C to understand how exactly programs run and interact; then move on to C++. Python is a good general-purpose language, and it is easy to learn as well as being very powerful for all kinds of applications. Perl and Java are other popular languages for beginners. Research your target application to learn if there are languages you should definitely know (e.g. SQL for databases) or avoid. Don’t be confused by jargon like “object-oriented”, “concurrent”, or “dynamic”; these all mean things, but you won’t be able to understand them until you actually have some programming experience.
  3. Find learning resources. Search the Web for good places to start on the languages mentioned above, and be sure to check the language’s home page (if it has one) for an official guide or handbook. Also, find someone who already knows how to program. Online tutorials are nice, but they can be frustrating at times if you can’t get answers to specific questions.
  4. Start small. You can’t expect to write a bestselling 700-page masterpiece if you have no practical writing experience; programming is the same way. Start with basic constructs and write small programs (10 to 30 lines) to test your understanding of the concepts. Stretch yourself, but don’t try to run before you can walk.
  5. Put in the time. It takes many hours of practicing problem-solving skills on different types of problems before you can call yourself an expert. Project Euler has many small programming assignments, ranked roughly by difficulty, that are useful for honing your skills and keeping in practice.
  6. Keep at it. Programming can be very frustrating, but successfully completing a program can be intensely satisfying. Don’t give up if you don’t understand a concept; programming can be a very abstract thing to learn. When working on a particularly intricate problem, take periodic breaks to let your brain relax and relegate the problem to your subconscious mind.
  7. Keep learning. Knowing one programming language is good, but knowing four or five is better. Regardless of what language you use most often, having knowledge of others to draw on will make you a better programmer and better able to understand common constructs and problems in the abstract. So learn several programming languages, especially two or three with different design philosophies, such as Lisp, Java, and Perl.
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Tips

  • Start with C, it will give you a good background of how programs run and how memory is managed. If you start with Java or Python you will certainly get stuck with C and C++ later which can be a major problem.
  • Languages commonly used in Web development include Python, Ruby, PHP, ASP, and Java. Web developers also need to have a strong basis of HTML and Javascript (which is not the same thing as Java), and are likely to find SQL useful as well.
  • If you are interested in game programming, investigate Python, C++, and Java. Of the three, C++ is probably the best performer, Python by far the easiest to learn, and Java best able to run on Windows, Mac OS, and Linux without change.
  • For automating tedious tasks (“scripting”) on Windows, look up C# (which is similar to Java), Visual Basic or PowerShell; for other platforms, Perl, Python, and bash (or other shells) are common.
  • Tutorials of any sort are not sufficient to learn a language well. Try to find people around you who have the same interests, and learn from one another. Browse and join message boards so you can be exposed to the techniques and discussions of a dynamic programming community.
  • Print books can be a valuable resource, but ask an experienced programmer for recommendations before dumping money on what may be very well-hyped fluff.
  • Make use of up-to-date APIs (application programming interfaces) and official reference materials available from the software publisher.
  • When you learn something new, it is often helpful to implement it yourself and then tweak the design, predicting the results, to make sure you understand the concept.
  • For most people, programming something that interests them or that they can use is more interesting than textbook examples. Use a search engine to find out about projects that interest you.
  • Learn about Free software. Study the source code of the programs available at the Free software directory. Why re-invent the wheel when you can make it better? Just make sure you understand what you’re programming.
  • References are there to help you. Don’t be ashamed if you don’t remember everything by heart; that comes with time. The important thing is knowing where to find reference material.
  • Talk to other programmers; read other programs. This is more important than any book or training course.
  • Get involved in a language standardization effort. It could be the ANSI C++ committee, or it could be deciding if your local coding style will have 2 or 4 space indentation levels. Either way, you learn about what other people like in a language, how deeply they feel so, and perhaps even a little about why they feel so.

Sources and Citations

original resource from here

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